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Thursday, May 29, 2008

EFFECT OF HIGH FFA CPO ON OIL REFINING

The advantages that can be accrued from refining of low FFA CPO are ;
  • lower refining losses of oil
  • lower usage of bleaching earth
  • lower dosage of phosphoric acid
  • higher throughput which mean lower down time

The relationship are ;

CPO FFA CONTENT : REFINING FACTOR

<>

3 to 4% : 2.1 X % FFA

4 to 5% : 2.2 X % FFA

> 5% : 2.3 X % FFA

FRUIT QUALITY & HANDLING

3 AREAS WILL AFFECT FFB QUALITY ;
  1. FFB composition - oil/mesocarp ; foreign matters ; fruitlets/ffb ; mesocarp/fruitlets ; loose fruitlets
  2. Estate - transport & handling ; harvesting
  3. Oil mill operation - handling at reception

FFB COMPOSITION

The components of ffb composition and their associated causes affecting ffb quality is drawn as follows ;

  1. Oil/Mesocarp - planting material ; palm age ; ripeness
  2. Fruitlets/Bunch - palm age ; pollination ; planting material
  3. Foreign matter - soil
  4. Loose fruitlets - ripeness ; planting material
  5. Mesocarp / Fruitlet - planting material ; ripeness ; pest ; palm age

FRUITLETS TO BUNCH

The ratio is affected by the following factors namely ;

  1. Pollination
  2. Planting material
  3. Palm age

MESOCARP TO FRUITLET

The ratio is affected by the following factors namely ;

  1. Planting material
  2. Pest
  3. Palm age
  4. Ripeness

OIL TO MESOCARP

The ratio is affected by the following factors ;

  1. Ripeness
  2. Planting material
  3. Palm age

QUALITY ANALYSIS ON POOR QUALITY LOOSE FRUITS

  1. FFA increases at the rate of 1 to 1.2% per day
  2. Bleachability deteriorated by 6 folds after 10 days but thereafter doubled for each increment of 10 days
  3. Oxidation values deteriorated sharply after 10 days but deterioration showed down thereafter
  4. Both tocopherol (anti-oxidant) and carotene declined to low levels

IN SUMMARY ;

The quality of ffb in terms of oil and kernel extraction rates and oil quality can be affected by ;

  1. The ffb input composition
  2. System of ffb transport and reception used in estate and mill respectively
  3. Deviation from the set harvesting standard

Friday, May 23, 2008

farewell dinner for tuan hussin jalil (senior general manager - BEA)




good luck to tuan hussin jalil from management & staffs of rimba nilai mill

THE PALM OIL FACTORY

PLANNING FOR OPERATION

What we are going to look at is a step by step consideration of all the factors involved namely ;
  1. Investment
  2. Justification
  3. Project management
  4. Project appraisal

INVESTMENT

A feasibility study would cover the following ;

  1. The FFB available for manufacture
  2. The cost of getting the FFB to the mill gate
  3. The cost of manufacture
  4. Investment cost of the Plant
  5. Evacuation of the products and the markets
  6. Approval of the relevent authorities
  7. The proper phasing of the processing capacity

To ensure the project is efficiently planned and implemented, the following are recommended to be adhered to ;

  1. Crop projection
  2. Initial planning of required capacity
  3. Site selections
  4. Capital Expenditure Projections
  5. Detailed engineering designs
  6. Supervision of the construction
  7. Training / Commissioning
  8. Project Appraisal

INITIAL PLANNING

At this phase, we should consider actual requirement carefully ;

  1. Area for mill's building and compound
  2. Quarters for labours / staffs / executives
  3. Roads and accessibility

CAPITAL EXPENDITURE PROJECTION

Cost for construction of a palm oil mill including ;

  1. Engineering & Preliminaries
  2. Site preparation
  3. Reception
  4. Sterilisation
  5. Pressing
  6. Threshing
  7. Kernel
  8. Clarification
  9. Boiler
  10. Power
  11. Effluent & Waste recovery
  12. Electrical
  13. Water
  14. Safety, Instrumentation & Piping
  15. Oil storage
  16. Foundations, Building etc
  17. Housing

Source - Ir. Tan Bee Wah / The Palm Oil Mill Factory / Diploma in Palm Oil Milling Technology and Management (1997)

Wednesday, May 14, 2008

ESTATE MANAGEMENT

The administrative functions of the estate office include ;


  • Routine reporting to Head Office
  • Monthly accounts and payments
  • Internal controls
  • Contracts
  • Government statutory requirements
  • Proper storage of records
  • Budget preparations

The immature phase involves the following ;

  • Nursery - establishment and maintenance
  • Replanting - land preparations and planting
  • Field upkeep - maintenance of field during immature period

Guidance for successful nursery are ;

  • Proper and carefull selection of nursery site and preparation
  • Purchase of seeds from reliable sources
  • Proper watering
  • Good upkeep/maintenance practices, including pests/diseases control
  • Proper and timely manuring

Work under upkeep ;

  • Drainage
  • Weeding
  • Pests & diseases
  • Pruning
  • Roads & paths

The important controls in harvesting are ;

  • All ripe bunches only are to be harvested
  • All loose fruit to be collected
  • Bunch stalks to be properly trimmed

Mature upkeep costs ;

  • Soil, water, regulation (drainage, conservation etc) - 10%
  • Weeding - 42%
  • Pest & disease control - 10%
  • Plant upkeep (pruning) - 17%
  • Roads - 17%
  • Others - 4%

Estate/Mill relationship necessary ;

  • Crop
  • Deliveries
  • Interruption
  • Oil extraction rate
  • FFA
  • EFB
  • POME

Crop - long term ;

  • Capital investment (mill design & machinery)
  • Long term supply
  • Mill capacity
  • Location
  • Manpower
  • Finance/cost
  • Water/power
  • Marketing

Crop - short term ;

  • Plan production
  • Trough and peak trends
  • Inspection and maintenance shutdown
  • Organise other running schedules
  • Marketing

Crop - monthly/weekly / daily forecast ;

  • Plan production
  • Trough and peak periods
  • Continuous supply
  • Interruptions
  • Marketing

Deliveries ;

  • Early
  • Continuous
  • Quality
  • Quantity
  • Security

Interruptions - mill ;

  • Breakdown
  • Congestions
  • Workers
  • Death
  • Strike
  • Festivals

Interruptions - estates ;

  • Rain
  • Flood
  • Workers
  • Strike
  • Death
  • Festival
  • Tractors and machinery
  • Transport
  • Security

Oil Extraction Rates ;

  • Mill efficiency
  • Ripeness - under or over ripe
  • Planting materials
  • Empty bunches
  • Long stalks
  • Rainfall
  • Contaminations

Free Fatty Acid ;

  • Mill efficiency - congestion etc
  • Overripeness
  • Bruised/damaged to FFB
  • Delayed delivery
  • Harvesting round - extended
  • Rainfall

Empty Fruit Bunch ;

  • Disposal
  • Congestion
  • Transport
  • Machinery
  • Workers

Effluent - land application ;

  • Machinery - pumps & pipes
  • Volume
  • Workers
  • Land area
  • Application rate

Source - H.K.Siow / Diploma in Palm Oil Milling Technology & Management (1997)

THE OIL PALM - AGRICULTURAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PROCESSING

  • the oil palm, Elaeis guineensis Jacq is a member of the tribe Cocoideae of the Palmae
  • was brought to Malaysia in 1870
  • approximately 12 to 15 bunches/palm/year
  • palms planted at 138 - 148 palms/ha
  • yield of bunches is usually 25 - 32 tonnes/ha/year
  • bunch ripens in about 150 days
  • palm transplanting to the field at about 12 to 14 months old from germination ; lined and holed at 9.1 or 8.8m triangle giving 138 or 148 palms/ha
  • bunch number was fluctuating between 135/ha in the pre-weevil days ; post-weevil, the bunch number/ha dropped to 11o
  • bleachability : oil from newly ripe fruit - 0.1R - 0.6Y = good ; oil from rotten fruit stored - 1.6R - 12.0Y = extremely poor

Source - Chan Kok Weng / Diploma in Palm Oil Milling Technology & Management (1997)

Tuesday, May 13, 2008

injin kapal terbang


ada jugak le naik kapal terbang sekali-sekala sejak kerja kilang sawit di sabah ni...cuma tak berapa faham macamana injin kapal terbang berfungsi. tengok gambar ni boleh faham sikit kut...

Wednesday, May 7, 2008

CONVERSION BS to SI

1 kg - 2.24 lb
1 in - 25.4 mm
1ft - 0.3048 mm ; 30.5 cm
1 mile - 1.6 km
1 aunt - 28.3 gm
1 ton - 1.02 ton
1 gelen - 4.55 litre
1 hp - 0.746 kw
deg C - 5/9 (deg F - 32)
1 ekar - 0.4 hectare
1 joule - 9.478 / 1000 btu
1 btu - 0.252 kcal
1 psi - 6.89 kpa ; 703.1 kg/m2
1 bar - 14.7 psia ; 1 atmosfera ; 760 mmHg ; 30 inHg
1 boiler hp - 34.5 lb h2o/hr evaporation

Tuesday, May 6, 2008

BOILER SPECIFICATIONS

VICKERS HOSKINS BOILER

  • Manufacture - Vickers Hoskins
  • Authorised working pressure - 150 psi
  • Heating surface - 300 m2
  • Capacity - 15,000 pph
  • Tube - 3" OD , 150 pcs

FRASER BOILER

  • Manufacture - IBAE
  • Authorised working pressure - 270 psi
  • Heating surface - 616 m2
  • Capacity - 33,000 pph
  • Chimney height - 110 ft
  • Final temperature - 230C
  • Superheater - Convection 22C superheated

FRASER BOILER

  • Manufacture - IBAE
  • Authorised working pressure - 310 psi (2138 kpa)
  • Heating surface - 580 m2 (6451 ft2)
  • Capacity - 25,000 pph
  • Tubes - 1 1/2" OD, 603 pcs ; 2" OD, 215 pcs
  • Chimney height - 60 ft
  • Final temperature - 230C (422F)

VICKERS BABCOCK BOILER

  • Manufacture - Vickers Hoskins
  • Authorised working pressure - 280 psi (2400 kpa)
  • Heating surface - 740 m2 (8222 ft2)
  • Capacity - 50,000 pph
  • Tubes - 2" OD, 704 pcs ; 3" OD, 122 pcs
  • Superheater - 1 1/2" OD, 16 pcs

YOSHIMINIE BOILER

  • Manufacture - Asia Industrial Corporation
  • Authorised working pressure - 313 psi (2158 kpa)
  • Heating surface - 384 m2
  • Capacity - 30,000 pph (13 ton/hr)

TOWLER BOILER

  • Manufacture - Mechmar
  • Authorised working pressure - 328 psi (2260 kpa)
  • Heating surface - 647 m2
  • Capacity - 40,000 pph (17 ton/hr)

VICKERS BOILER

  • Manufacture - Vickers Hoskins
  • Authorised working pressure - 2.4 N/mm2
  • Heating surface - 642 m2
  • Capacity - 50,000 pph (22.7 ton/hr)

Friday, May 2, 2008

BOILER WATER MONITORING

pH - 10.5 to 11.5

Total alkalinity ppm CaCO3 - 700 max

OH Aklinity ppm CaCO3 - 200 to 400

Chloride ppm Cl - 800 max

Orthophosphate ppm PO4 - 30 to 50

Sulphite ppm SO3 - 30 to 50

TDS ppm - < 2000

Silica ppm SiO2 - < 150

Total hardness ppm CaCO3 - < 5

OPTIMUM OIL AND KERNEL LOSSES CONTROL

Example of Optimum Oil and Kernel Losses Control ;


Press cake - Nut = 44% ; Fibre = 56%

Nut breakage in press fibre - Cracked nut < 5% ; Broken kernel < 1%

Ripple mill cracking - Whole nut <> 95%

Production kernel - Shell & Dirt < 6% ; Moisture < 7%

Press fibre / Cyclone fibre - Oil/sample < 4% ; OIL/NOS < 7%

Dry nut - Oil/sample < 1% ; OIL/NOS < 1%

Empty bunch - Oil/sample < 2% ; OIL/NOS < 7%

Steriliser condensate - Oil/sample < 1% ; OIL/NOS < 15%

Sludge - Oil/sample < 1% ; OIL/NOS < 15%

CPO production - FFA < 5% ; Moisture < 0.15% ; Dirt < 0.03%


OIL LOSS TO FFB LIMIT :

In fibre - 0.65
In nut - 0.10
In bunch - 0.40
In steriliser condensate - 0.10
In sludge - 0.35
Total - 1.60

KERNEL LOSS TO FFB LIMIT :

In dry shell / LTDS - 0.05
In wet shell - 0.06
In fibre - 0.21
Total - 0.32

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Thursday, May 1, 2008

PALM OIL MILL OPERATIONS

  1. Mill self sufficient in fuel and power
  2. Products are red palm oil, palm kernel, bunch ash and biogas
  3. 100 tonnes FFB gives approximately 21 tonnes oil, 6 tonnes kernel, 0.5 tonnes bunch ash and 1700 m3 biogas

Empty bunch - VM = 67.30% ; NOS = 30.90% ; OIL/NOS = 5.83%

Bunch ash - 0.5% to FFB

Potash - 40%

Steriliser condensate - VM = 95.5% ; NOS = 4.10% ; OIL/NOS = 9.76%

Press cake - VM = 41.30% ; NOS = 54.30% ; OIL/NOS = 8.10%

Sludge - VM = 84.60% ; OIL = 10.40% ; NOS = 5.00%

Pure oil - Before purifier - VM = 0.48% ; After purifier - VM = 0.15%

Wet nut - OIL/NOS = 0.80%

Raw effluent - NOS = 4.46% ; OIL/NOS = 12.10% ; pH = 4 ; BOD = 30,000 mg/l

STEAM & POWER BALANCE

1 ton FFB will produced
---> 0.70 ton steam
---> 30 kw power
---> 0.8 to 1.0 ton effluent


1 ton FFB processed required
---> 0.50 ton steam
---> 15 to 25 kw power

OIL per HECTARE FORMULA

Oil/Hectare = (oil/mesocarp) x (mesocarp/fruitlet) x (fruitlet/bunch) x (milling efficiency) x (bunch/hectare)

Mill role : Oil extraction efficiency ---> Maximum efficiency & minimise loss

R & D and Estate role : Maximise oil to bunch and yield per hectare

selepas 50 tahun merdeka !


pengalaman perjalanan ke sebuah kilang di pendalaman sarawak.kesian la...tak kan dah 50 tahun merdeka jalan macam ini lagi kut !

landslide 2007


kalau nak tau inilah gambar land slide yang berlaku pada tahun 2007 sepanjang jalan ke kilang...nasib baik bawak stok makanan...bolehlah makan maggi dulu sementara jalan boleh 'limpas'

rimba nilai pom


inilah rimba nilai palm oil mill...tempat saya bertugas sekarang...kalau melancung ke sabah bolehlah singgah kat sini...kilang ni terletak di Ladang Sungai Sungai 1, Labuk Sugut, Sandakan. lebih kurang 4 jam dari KK / sandakan. welcome...sabah bagus ba!

PONDS CAPACITY & HYDRAULIC RETENTION TIME (HRT)

Main parameters ;

  • Mill throughput
  • Operation hour
  • Estimate effluent production - 0.8 to 1.0 t/t FFB
  • Daily effluent production
  • HRT = Liquor volume / Daily effluent production

Legend ;

  1. d - Working depth of liquor
  2. L1 - Length of pond at top water level
  3. L2 - Length of pond at bottom water level
  4. W1 - Width of pond at top water level
  5. W2 - Width of pond at bottom water level
  6. Tph - Tonne per hour of FFB process
  7. t/t - Tonne per tonne

Formula used for calculating pond/liquor volume ;

V = Depth [ A + a + /A.a ] x 1/3

Where,

  • V - Volume
  • A - Area of pond at top water level or L1 x W1
  • a - Area of pond at bottom water level or L2 x W2
  • d - Working depth of water or liquor

# /A - square root of A